1. Social learning theory

Bandura’s theory recognises the importance of positive reinforcement, punishment and other consequences in influencing behaviour. He also saw that learning through observations of other people (modelling) was an important influence. Personal change is enabled through the client experiencing mastery and success, which improves their expectancies of self-efficacy.

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Beck (1976) expanded on this theory to propose that early childhood experiences and critical experiences resulted in the formation of schemas which determine the way in which individuals perceive their world.  Therefore, it is how an individual perceives what happens to them, rather than the event itself that is significant.  

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2Personal construct theory

Kelly (1955) agreed with the phenomenologists in that he saw no external objective reference point that could be used for psychometric testing.  He viewed personality as consisting of constructs that represent an individual’s way of viewing themselves and the world around them. These are core

(central) and peripheral (more changeable) constructs.